Opinion, Philosophy or the TRUTH! How useful would the fact/opinion distinction be if any statement could count as either one, depending on who hears it? Truth, like knowledge, is surprisingly difficult to define. It is true that snow is white if and only if snow is white. Montaigne even states, “Truth must be, out several arguments for why it is always beneficial for people of the minority opinion to voice their opinions. Are philosophers stating truths or are they stating opinion? While some philosophers hold that moral beliefs are subjective, many do not. Want to Be Good at Philosophy? but then were there no facts before books? Plato says “They say that they can pretty much put knowledge into sounds that lake it, like putting sight into blind eyes.” (Plato, trans C.D.C Reeve, Hackett,1999, p. 212) Plato is explaining that anyone can be knowledgeable with the right tools or instructor. Very interesting & important question. God is an unchanging, permanent being, and only from this state can the concept of truth propagate. In my opinion, the greatest scandal of philosophy is that, while all around us the world of nature perishes - and not the world of nature alone - philosophers continue to talk, sometimes cleverly and sometimes not, about the question of whether this world exists. An opinion is simply what a given individual (believes) is the truth or what is factual in the case of an event of some kind. Some of the best essays on truth feature controversial opinions. In Plato's The Republic he discuses the idea that there is first knowledge at the first degree. Ditto if it didn’t happen. "Lovers of sights and sounds like beautiful sounds, colors, shapes, and everything fashioned out of them, but their thought is unable to see and embrace the nature of the beautiful itself (Republic 476b)." A fact is based on direct evidence, actual experience, or observation. In my opinion, truth and falseness in art is relative, meaning that a piece of art is not limited to a single truth. Can Psychologists Tell Us Anything About Morality? Truthmaker theory is the branch of metaphysics that explores the relationships between what is true and what exists. The few who do recognize the beautiful itself are followers of the sight of truth, the philosophers. One of the most common misconceptions about philosophy is that philosophical views are just opinions and hence any view is just as good (or bad) as any other. Every man is a fool in some man's opinion . Generally, the truth is an expression or a statement that conforms to the reality - you can include this statement in your conclusion. Much of the contemporary literature on truth takes as its startingpoint some ideas which were prominent in the early part of the 20thcentury. Major theories of truth include those based on correspondence, coherence, truth conditions, and deflationism. According to Arendt, the greatest antagonist of factual truth is an opinion, rather than a lie, particularly in light of the current predilection of blurring between fact and opinion. Why worry about the fact/opinion distinction? FACT OR OPINION? (4b) A Democrat will win the presidency in 2016. Perhaps more confusing is its labelling opinions as “statement(s) of belief.” As we’ve been using the terms, all statements express beliefs, and our task is to determine which of them express factual beliefs and which express opinions. I might believe that God created the earth, whether or not God did – indeed, whether or not God exists at all. As we age throughout life, we acquire our knowledge through people with a certain profession. An important part of reading comprehension is determining what a fact is and what an opinion is. Let me offer a conjecture: the fact/opinion distinction is ambiguous, and in trying to explain it, people typically conflate it with other distinctions in the neighbourhood. In common usage, to say “it is my opinion that X” is to say “I believe X.” An opinion is also typically taken as an unsupported opinion. Discussions of truthmakers and truthmaking typically start with the idea that truth depends on being, and not vice versa. That’s true whether we’re talking about beliefs that usually show up in the “fact” column (“There’s beer in the refrigerator”) or in the “opinion” column (“God created the earth”). Read more at www.johncorvino.com. He argues that opinion is not pure knowledge and therefore can not be pure truth. John Corvino is Chair of the Philosophy Department at Wayne State University, the author of What's Wrong With Homosexuality?, and the co-author (with Maggie Gallagher) or Debating Same-Sex Marriage. And since we’ve been treating both facts and opinions as statements of belief, facts and opinions are similarly subjective: In other words, we can always ask “Whose belief?” or “Whose statement?”. numbers). Ann can have the opinion that Italian food tastes best, while Joe has the opinion that French food is ideal. Over the years, the doctrine of the Bible has been influenced by opinions of those trained in philosophy and Roman government. A man of right opinion cannot explain why he thinks as he does or cannot explain to others why he thinks he his opinion is right. All opinions are equally true and equally false. Moreover, many of the standard “opinion” examples are not normative: consider “God exists” or “A Democrat will win the presidency in 2016”. Usually, we are unable to understand the real meanings of truth, fact, perception & belief. Socrates and most intellectuals since his time, have been of the firm opinion that "higher" pursuits such as self-examination and philosophy make for a better life. That’s not necessarily a bad thing, since – as we have seen – our common thinking about facts and opinions appears rather confused. Second, they explain why some objective matters – in particular, controversial matters such God’s existence or predictions about the future – get placed in the category of opinion, despite their objective content. When debating ethics and other controversial topics, one frequently hears the claim “That’s just your opinion.” It is a pernicious claim, devoid of clear meaning, and it should be consigned to the flames – or so I shall argue here. Can we truly know that what we critical thinkers think is true and does it have merit or is it only our reality that allows us to differentiate between opinion and what we call truth, knowledge and wisdom? Philosophers might be tempted to draw this contrast by identifying facts as states of affairs – occurrences that are there in the world regardless of what anyone may think about them – and identifying opinions as beliefs (or some other mental state) about states of affairs. There was never any systematic attempt at justification, and without this any claim to truth is seriously (and usually fatally) flawed. Having teased apart these various distinctions, and looking back over the several attempts to explain the difference between fact and opinion, we might propose the following definitions: o A statement of fact is one that has objective content and is well-supported by the available evidence. Generally, we strive to make our beliefs as accurate as possible in representing reality, but that doesn’t remove the gap (some would say “gulf”) between the two. For example, an historian might say, What Copernicus said was objectively true in exasperation — if some rival historian had been defending some depth-psychological or economic explanation of the fact that Copernicus said I, Aristotle, is a man that wants to investigate the premises of truth. Some are about objective matters, such as whether there is beer in the refrigerator. Montaigne believes that the one tie that binds all truth is this idea of permanence. That is, they contrast factual beliefs from opinions (opinion beliefs), and it is quite appropriate to ask “Whose belief?” in either case. Moreover, there is a strong commonsense intuition that genocide would be wrong whether anyone believes it’s wrong, suggesting that the claim is objective, not subjective. The concept of truth as the basic philosophical notion has been interpreted differently. In education, children as young as kindergarten engage in conversation about fact an… It is also by no means obvious that “Genocide is wrong” should remain in the “opinion” column. Both of these connect fact with provability. Finally, consider the descriptive/normative distinction. For among the beliefs that people have about the world, there are some that people tend to put in the “fact” column and some that they tend to put in the “opinion” column. In recognising that a personal belief differs sharply from that of other individuals and cultures, one may conclude, “I guess that’s just my opinion – no better than anyone else’s.” This conclusion may stem from an admirable humility. Truth, in matters of religion, is simply the opinion that has survived. In fact, several historians say for instance, that the “Roman Catholic Church is more Roman than it is Christian.” Even someone who isn’t the smartest can still gain useful amounts of knowledge to create good in the world if they have the correct guidance. Astrobiologists study the former problem; philosophers, the latter.This philosophical problem of truth has been with us for a long time. Solid opinions, while based on facts, are someone’s views on a subject and not facts themselves.”. You can look up facts in an encyclopedia or other reference, or see them for yourself. The perception we develop through the senses (seeing, smelling, tasting, touching, and hearing) does not consist of real truth. We seem to rely on it almost every moment of every day and it's very \"close\" to us. Curious as to the standard explanation, I Googled “facts vs. opinions”. This diminishment is especially troubling in moral debates. A fact is something that is true everywhere and for everyone. The Enchanted Learning site muddies the waters even further by claiming that you can look up facts in an encyclopaedia (always? Example 2. Accept and close Essays; Philosophy; The Different Kinds Of Truth Philosophy Essay. These theories all attempt to directly answer the naturequestion: what is the nature of truth? (I’ll say more about the subjective/objective distinction later on.). The Education Oasis site announces that “An opinion expresses someone’s belief ... about something.” So if I believe that there’s beer in my refrigerator, is that just an opinion? ), and by including an evaluative notion (“good for you”) among examples of facts. Although this is reliable to a certain extent, we are sometimes misguided in understanding the truth by relying in other folks’ status in their profession. In other words, a fact is true and correct no matter what. John Corvino argues that the claim "That's just your opinion" is pernicious and should be consigned to the flames. dll philosophy week 3 When someone asks, “Is that a fact?” they can be understood as asking, “Is that really the case?” or “Is that ultimately true?” When someone says, “It is a fact that…” they are telling us, in other words, “It is the case that…” or “It is true that…” That is, facts are not the statements themselves; they are, rather, the state of affairs or the reality to which a true statement corresponds. Now it is neither necessary nor useful – indeed, it is positively misleading – to define ‘fact’ in terms of what is indisputablythe case – yet people … But this way of drawing the contrast merely pushes the problem back further. They take this question atface value: there are truths, and the question to be answered concernst… Perhaps the last example suggests a better answer: the difference between facts and opinions is that factual statements are uncontroversial. Truth, in philosophy, the property of sentences, assertions, beliefs, thoughts, or propositions that are said, in ordinary discourse, to agree with the facts or to state what is the case. Indeed, the “opinion” label is used not only to belittle others’ stances, but also to deflate one’s own. The Form of Truth Facts and truth are two words that we come across very commonly. Thus, for example, truth can be defined as the body of real events, things, and facts (Glanzberg, 2016). God is the only infinite, all seeing, being with divine wisdom. On the other hand, it can have pernicious effects: it leads to a kind of wishy-washiness, wherein one refrains from standing up for one’s convictions for fear of imposing “mere opinions”. The principal problem is to offer a viable theory as to what truth itself consists in, or, to put it another way, \"What is the nature of truth?\" To illustrate with an example – the problem is not: Is it true that there is extraterrestrial life? This means that opinions are those ideas that we have absolutely no proof of. To distinguish the meanings of these words generally & especially in the context of psychology & philosophy. Yet it's difficult to define because as soon as you think you have it pinned down, some case or counterexample immediately shows deficiencies. “ The problem of truth is in a way easy to state: what truths are, and what (if anything) makes them true. Either we send troops to Syria or we don’t. So for instance, given. You can view samples of our professional work here. Plato goes on to, the ideas of opinion and knowledge. It also jumbles together occurrences (what we earlier called “states of affairs”), statements about occurrences, and the evidence for those statements. If it happened, it happened whether anyone believes it or not. Truth - Truth - Deflationism: Philosophers before Tarski, including Gottlob Frege and Frank Ramsey, had suspected that the key to understanding truth lay in the odd fact that putting “It is true that…” in front of an assertion changes almost nothing. Ironically, every definition of truth that philosophers have developed falls prey to the question, \"Is it true?\" Simply, we can define truth as: a statement abou… In the last degree is falsehood. Penny can have the opinion that cold weather is better, while Tim can prefer hot weather. To understand more completely, let's define each. Knowledge is connected with both opinion and truth. Example 1. THE ANSWER ISOPINION This is an opinion because it is what YOU personally think.Just because you think the girl has beautiful hair does notmean that she actually has beautiful hair. If you think yours is better, don’t merely say so: Say why. PPT Week c - Fact vs Opinion - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Mind you, they have no trouble in offering examples of either, or in categorising others’ examples. Truth for Aristotle has a conclusion; it is defining and is tangible. Others say that factual statements are “concrete” rather than “abstract”, but that answer would render all mathematical statements non-factual, since mathematics involves abstract concepts (e.g. In my opinion , white chocolate is better than milk chocolate. For example, if the sentence ‘Kangaroos live in Australia’ is true, then there are kangaroos living in Australia. The physical world only has one constant - change. For example, most people would say that it’s true that genocide is wrong, and there may or may not be beer in my refrigerator. On this theory, truth is understood in terms of the way reality is described by our beliefs. If this is “Critical Thinking”, I’d hate to see what Sloppy Thinking looks like. However, seeing is not believing. This answer is not at all helpful, since opinions are typically put forth as true, and some factual claims turn out to be false. Some empirical questions are how things are made, who, capacity for knowledge with this belief that only though God can one achieve true knowledge. There were a number of views of truth under discussion atthat time, the most significant for the contemporary literature beingthe correspondence, coherence, and pragmatist theories of truth. For example: the statement that thousands were killed in Darfur is descriptive; the statement that such killing was wrong is normative. Here’s the first result I received, from a “Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project” website: “Fact: statement of actuality or occurrence. If everyday observers are confused about the distinction, “experts” fare little better. It is clear that Mill’s writing on free speech is an application of Socratic wisdom mainly because of his emphasis on debate, and his acknowledgement of the limitation of human knowledge. It shows one’s feelings about a subject. Therefore, if truth gives us knowledge we will need to provide an explanation of existence or why a statement is true. If the fact/opinion distinction were identical to the fact/value distinction, then once again we would need to revise our common thinking about facts and opinions. Categorising these issues as “matters of opinion” doesn’t make them any less urgent or vital. There are many definitions of this concept focusing on different dimensions. Philosophy, politics, and objective truth Volume 5 Summer 2013 something like method in the history of astronomy. These definitions have several advantages. I therefore propose that we abandon the ambiguous fact/opinion distinction, and especially the dismissive retort “That’s just your opinion.” We should focus instead on whether people can offer good reasons for the claims they make – reasons that might compel us to share their views. What Is Truth - Comparison of Plato and Peirce's Philosophy Essay examples 994 Words | 4 Pages. (This is not how to conduct serious philosophical research, but it can be a useful way of gauging common thoughts on a subject.) (De gustibus non est disputandum: there’s no disputing taste.). Perhaps the fact/opinion distinction tracks the distinction between statements with objective content (facts?) Descriptive statements describe or represent the world; normative statements evaluate it. Isn’t philosophy based on the opinions of their studying of human nature? Sue can have the opinion that reading is boring, while Mike can have the opinion that reading is fun. For example, it is an opinion that broccoli tastes good (or bad).”. At most there might be an added emphasis, but no change of topic. and those with subjective content (opinions?). Opinion is a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty. “Opinion: statement of belief or feeling. Truthmaker Theory. We explore the nature of truth, the different types of truth, and the different types of entities who report truth to better understand the nature of information. When asked to explain the principle of distinction between the two, however – the rule that tells us how to assign statements to one category or the other – they often get tongue-tied. In the second degree there is opinion which is neither proven to be true or false. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. In my own reason-based thought this idea that through silence ignorance grows louder is my own general understanding. Are philosophers not putting forth their opinions about life and what they think the truth is? Despite its unclear meaning, the claim “That’s just your opinion” has a clear use: It is a conversation-stopper. For example, whether or not God created the earth is an objective matter, albeit a controversial and difficult-to-prove one. But if so, we would need to revise what usually gets put in each column. In common understanding, there’s a world (reality), and then there are our representations of that world (beliefs: sometimes true, sometimes not). They are closely related and hence many dictionaries actually list them as synonyms. In particular, the statement that “God created the earth” will need to move over to the “fact” column, since whether God created the earth is an objective matter – it happened (or not) independently of whether we believe it happened. Study Maths and Science. However, one may argue that what is true and false in art is not simply based on personal truth, but on some standards by which all art is measured by. Questioning many professions, journalism or any social media has taking the biggest blow of them all. Second, consider the subjective/objective distinction. Let’s consider three of those other distinctions. For thousands of years, mankind has persistently pursued truth, knowledge, and understanding. Of Plato and Peirce 's philosophy Essay examples 994 words | 4 Pages subjective, because beliefs on! The chapter `` truth and the B statements are facts and opinions is that attempts bridge! Opinion with numerous theories regarding the value of living the heavily-examined life be... \ '' close\ '' to us correct no matter what, i Googled “ facts are.! Know your opinions on the new systems be consigned to the car or we don ’ t make any. 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