Samos was at war with Miletus over control of Priene, an ancient city of Ionia on the foot-hills of Mycale. Knowledge of the life of Pericles derives largely from two sources. [37] If it was actually made, this bargain would constitute a concession on Pericles' part that he was not a great strategist. The truce allowed Pericles to focus his attention on other areas. Its administration favours the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. "[82] Another consideration that may well have influenced Pericles' stance was the concern that revolts in the empire might spread if Athens showed herself weak. The period during which he led Athens, roughly from 461 to 429 B.C.E., is sometimes known as the "Age of Pericles," though the period thus denoted can include times as early as the Greco-Persian Wars, or as late as the next century. [31] Cimon finally accepted the new democracy and did not oppose the citizenship law, after he returned from exile in 451 B.C.E.[32]. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. 6. [15], Thucydides, an admirer of Pericles, maintains that Athens was "in name a democracy but, in fact, governed by its first citizen". [52], Pericles wanted to stabilize Athens' dominance over its alliance and to enforce its pre-eminence in Greece. Whatever the reason was, in 461 BCE Pericles again charged Cimon with corruption – this time by claiming he was aiding Spartan interests – and succeeded in having his rival ostracized from the city for ten years. Athens Acropolisby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). HistoryWiz Primary Source. [132] In Menexenus, however, Socrates casts aspersions on Pericles' rhetorical fame, claiming ironically that, since Pericles was educated by Aspasia, a trainer of many orators, he would be superior in rhetoric to someone educated by Antiphon. "The Peloponnesian War". During the Peloponnesian War, Pericles' dependence on popular support to govern was obvious. "[138], Pericles' most visible legacy can be found in the literary and artistic works of his Golden Age, most of which survive to this day. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article [86], No definite record exists of how exactly Pericles managed to convince the residents of Attica to agree to move into the crowded urban areas. ), and on the creation of new cleruchies, such as Andros, Naxos and Thurii (444 B.C.E.) (making the Athenian interventions in Egypt and Cyprus violations of the peace), and renegotiated at the conclusion of the campaign in Cyprus, taking force again by 449–448 B.C.E. Web. (2018, March 28). [115] According to Platias and Koliopoulos, Athens as the strongest party did not have to beat Sparta in military terms and "chose to foil the Spartan plan for victory". 3-19. Plato's Philosopher King from The Republic Primary Source. License. Pericles' name means "surrounded by glory" and he would live up to his name through his efforts to make Athens the greatest of the Greek city-states. This was because he did not have to adapt what he said in order to please his hearers, in an attempt to gain power by improper means, but his standing allowed him even to speak against them and provoke their anger. [91] While the Spartan army remained in Attica, Pericles sent a fleet of 100 ships to loot the coasts of the Peloponnese and charged the cavalry to guard the ravaged farms close to the walls of the city. Tracy compiles and translates the scattered, elusive primary sources relating to Pericles. Other Ancient History. [63] Pericles then quelled a revolt in Byzantium and, when he returned to Athens, he gave a funeral oration to honor the soldiers who died in the expedition. He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful and historically influential Alcmaeonid family. [18] The historian Loren J. Samons, argues, however, that Pericles had enough resources to make a political mark by private means, had he so chosen. Agariste was the great-granddaughter of the tyrant o… But all this case in our private relations does not make us lawless as citizens. [49] In 446 B.C.E., a more dangerous uprising erupted. the leadership of the democratic party decided it was time to take aim at the Areopagus, a traditional council controlled by the Athenian aristocracy, which had once been the most powerful body in the state. Related Content Pericles, following Athenian custom, was first married to one of his closest relatives, with whom he had two sons, Xanthippus and Paralus. Anaxagoras in particular became a close friend and influenced him greatly. The freedom which we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life. Aspasia’s talent as a writer, and close association with Pericles, encouraged his enemies to claim she was the author of his greatest speeches but it seems clear he had a gift for oratory from a young age, long before he met her, as evidenced in speeches such as the one which exiled Cimon. Kagan states that Pericles adopted "an elevated mode of speech, free from the vulgar and knavish tricks of mob-orators" and, according to Diodorus Siculus, he "excelled all his fellow citizens in skill of oratory. Humans are fickle, however, and Cimon’s achievements – though they may have helped him in the case of 463 BCE – would not do so a second time. 2 Four unpaired Lives. ", "Rather, the admiration of the present and succeeding ages will be ours, since we have not left our power without witness, but have shown it by mighty proofs; and far from needing a Homer for our panegyrist, or other of his craft whose verses might charm for the moment only for the impression which they gave to melt at the touch of fact, we have forced every sea and land to be the highway of our daring, and everywhere, whether for evil or for good, have left imperishable monuments behind us. [25], Such measures impelled Pericles' critics to regard him as responsible for the gradual degeneration of the Athenian democracy. Sources for Pericles In constructing Pericles, Shakespeare relied upon Apollonius of Tyre, an ancient tale, lost forever in its original Greek, translated into Latin around the 5th century, into Old English in the 11th century, and into English by John Gower in the late 14th century.It is the version translated by Gower that Shakespeare used as his primary source for Pericles. [4] His proverbial calmness and self-control are also regarded as products of Anaxagoras' influence. The ostensible accusation was that Cimon betrayed his city by acting as a friend of Sparta. This relationship aroused many reactions and even Pericles' own son, Xanthippus, who had political ambitions, did not hesitate to slander his father. Pericles came from a rich and high-ranking noble family. [6][7] (Although Plutarch claims that this deformity was the reason that Pericles was always depicted wearing a helmet, this is not the case; the helmet was actually the symbol of his official rank as strategos (general)). Pericles promoted the arts, literature, and philosophy and gave free reign to some of the most inspired writers, artists, and thinkers of his time. [113] Pericles tried also to minimize the advantages of Sparta by rebuilding the walls of Athens. The Age of Pericles, however, could not last any more than any other in history. [56] By 450–449 B.C.E. Home > Primary Sources > Pericles’ Funeral Oration. "[82] Consequently, Pericles asked the Spartans to offer a quid pro quo. Infoplease is a reference and learning site, combining the contents of an encyclopedia, a dictionary, an atlas and several almanacs loaded with facts. His primary focus, however, is the glory of Athens and how unique it is among all the other cities of the world. Artists and sculptors, playwrights and poets, architects and philosophers all found Athens an exciting and enlivening atmosphere for their work. Their son was also called Pericles. [35] Pericles may have realized the importance of Cimon's contribution during the ongoing conflicts against the Peloponnesians and the Persians. ", "These glories may incur the censure of the slow and unambitious; but in the breast of energy they will awake emulation, and in those who must remain without them an envious regret. Back in 480, after the final defeat of the Persians, the Athenians had been chosen to lead the new confederacy of free Greek states. Even at war, Pericles was able to maintain the social stability necessary for art, literature, and philosophy to flourish and the works of this age continue to influence and inspire people around the world in the present day. [104] Nonetheless, these persecutions did not undermine Pericles' morale, although he had to burst into tears in order to protect his beloved Aspasia when she was accused of corrupting Athenian society. Pericles. The Congress failed because of Sparta's stance, but Pericles' real intentions remain unclear. [93], In 430 B.C.E., the army of Sparta looted Attica for a second time, but Pericles was not daunted and refused to revise his initial strategy. [94] Unwilling to engage the Spartan army in battle, he again led a naval expedition to plunder the coasts of the Peloponnese, this time taking 100 Athenian ships with him. Pericles was born in Athens, in 495 BCE, to an aristocratic family. [133] He also attributes authorship of the Funeral Oration to Aspasia and attacks his contemporaries' veneration of Pericles. Pericles’ Funeral Oration. Athens responded by breaking their diplomatic ties with Sparta. "[127] It is generally held that those succeeding him lacked his abilities and character.[128]. Pericles (also spelled Perikles) (ca. "[21], Thucydides argues that Pericles "was not carried away by the people, but he was the one guiding the people". No written work by Pericles has come down to us and, except for some speeches that he may have committed to writing and measures that he sponsored in the Council and the Assembly, we have no sure knowledge that Pericles himself wrote anything. This project beautified the city, exhibited its glory, and gave work to the people. It is the version translated by Gower that Shakespeare used as his primary source for Pericles. Last modified March 28, 2018. [5][6] One interpretation of the anecdote treats the lion as a traditional symbol of greatness, but the story may also allude to the unusual size of Pericles' skull, which became a popular target of contemporary comedians. Greek Sources About Pericles . [70] Beloch also believes that Pericles deliberately brought on the war to protect his political position at home. Constantine Paparrigopoulos, a major modern Greek historian, argues that Pericles sought for the expansion and stabilization of all democratic institutions. α[›] He was the son of the politician Xanthippus, who, although ostracized in 485–484 BC, returned to Athens to command the Athenian contingent in the Greek victory at Mycale just five years later. The process by which the Delian League transformed into an Athenian empire is generally considered to have begun well before Pericles' time,[53] as various allies in the league chose to pay tribute to Athens instead of manning ships for the league's fleet, but the transformation was speeded and brought to its conclusion by measures implemented by Pericles. Later in life, this initial shyness would encourage the claims of his detractors that his consort Aspasia of Miletus (c. 470 - 410 BCE) taught him how to speak and wrote his speeches for him because, they said, there was no evidence of him learning oratory in his youth. in, D. Knight, "Thucydides and the War Strategy of Pericles.". Pericles crossed over to Euboea with his troops, but was forced to return when the Spartan army invaded Attica. He was certain that democracy had reached its peak and Pericles’ reforms were leading to the stalemate of populism. The Delian League had existed for almost twenty years at this time and had increasingly become more of an extension of Athenian power and politics than a Greek confederacy for mutual defense. [16][17], In 463 B.C.E. The First Peloponnesian War was fought between Athens and Sparta for supremacy although the actual conflict would primarily involve Athens and Corinth, an ally of Sparta. Thucydides' modern commentators are still trying to unravel the puzzle of Pericles' orations and to figure out if the wording belongs to the Athenian statesman or the historian.ιβ[›] Since Pericles never wrote down or distributed his orations,ιγ[›] no historians are able answer this with certainty; Thucydides recreated three of them from memory and, thereby, it cannot be ascertained that he did not add his own notions and thoughts.ιδ[›] Although Pericles was a main source of his inspiration, some historians have noted that the passionate and idealistic literary style of the speeches Thucydides attributes to Pericles is completely at odds with Thucydides' own reserved, analytical writing style.ιε[›] This might, however, be the result of the incorporation of the genre of rhetoric into the genre of historiography. He brings Athens's political atmosphere to life with archaeological evidence and the accounts of those close to Pericles, including Thucydides, Aristophanes, Herodotus, … Agariste was the great-granddaughter of the tyrant of Sicyon, Cleisthenes, and the niece of the Supreme Athenian reformer Cleisthenes, another Alcmaeonid.β[›][4] According to Herodotus and Plutarch, Agariste dreamed, a few nights before Pericles' birth, that she had borne a lion. [62] When the Samians revolted against Athenian rule, Pericles compelled the rebels to capitulate after a tough siege of eight months, which resulted in substantial discontent among the Athenian sailors. On each line there is a link to the page where the name can be found. The result was in theory democracy but in fact rule by the first man. [114], During the Peloponnesian War, Pericles initiated a defensive "grand strategy" whose aim was the exhaustion of the enemy and the preservation of the status quo. [121], In politics, Victor L. Ehrenberg argues that a basic element of Pericles' legacy is Athenian imperialism, which denies true democracy and freedom to the people of all but the ruling state. Triremes Inquiry Unit “Pericles' Funeral Oration,” in Thucydides (c.460/455-c.399 BCE), Peloponnesian War (Book 2.34-46) Triremes Inquiry Unit “This famous speech was given by the Athenian leader Pericles after… Learn more Kagan, Donald, "Athenian Strategy in the Peloponnesian War". eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',162,'0','0'])); Pericles was born around 495 B.C.E., in the deme of Cholargos just north of Athens.α[›] He was the son of the politician Xanthippus, who, although ostracized in 485–4 B.C.E., returned to Athens to command the Athenian contingent in the Greek victory at Mycale just five years later. It compiles and translates the scattered, elusive primary sources relating to Pericles. Pericles - son of Xanthippus; Athenian politician, 5th century B.C. "Pericles." Shakespeare chose to rename his hero from Apollonius to Pericles, and the change was likely inspired by the character Pyrocles in Sir Philip Sidney’s Arcadia , one of the play’s minor sources. 3, July, 1982, pp. According to the provisions of the decree, Megarian merchants were excluded from the market of Athens and the ports in its empire. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. [19], Around 462–461 B.C.E. [30], For more than 20 years Pericles led numerous expeditions, mainly naval ones. Likely composed and first performed in the years 1606-08, Pericles is a tale of loss and reconciliation between father and daughter, based upon the classical legend of Pericles of Tyre. Pericles' funeral Oration highlights how Athenian democracy encourages personal freedom & sets the city apart from the rest. Pericles - son of Xanthippus; Athenian politician, 5th century B.C. Tiberius Gracchus & Gaius Gracchus and Agis & Cleomenes1 • Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus1 • Themistocles and Camillus, 1 Comparison extant Our polity does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. [77] In 433 B.C.E. Although democracy was developing in Athens long before Pericles, his initiatives allowed it to flourish and, as it did, so did Athenian culture. Pericles, as commander-in-chief, led the Athenian forces in a number of battles but neither side could gain a significant advantage. [126], On the other hand, Platias and Koliopoulos reject these criticisms and state that "the Athenians lost the war only when they dramatically reversed the Periclean grand strategy that explicitly disdained further conquests. ), in which Athens relinquished most of the possessions and interests on the Greek mainland which it had acquired since 460 B.C.E., and both Athens and Sparta agreed not to attempt to win over the other state's allies. Loraux, Nicole. Greek Sources About Pericles . Ostracon mentioning Pericles, son of Xanthippus. [98] This is considered to be a monumental oration, revealing Pericles' virtues but also his bitterness towards his compatriots' ingratitude. Bereft of his leadership, the Athenians made mistake after mistake in their military decisions leading eventually to their defeat by the Spartans in 404 BCE, the destruction of their city’s walls, and their occupation and rule by Sparta. [9] Temporarily, he managed to tame the people's resentment and to ride out the storm, but his internal enemies' final bid to undermine him came off; they managed to deprive him of the generalship and to fine him at an amount estimated between 15 and 50 talents. Not make us lawless as citizens 10 th, 10 th, 10 th, 10 th, th! 52 ], his reforms would lay the groundwork for the archonship in 458–457 B.C.E. agreed to,! ], the second shows their impe about these limitations he probably planned for better. 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