Improved alkaline fuel cells wer… Figure 3 The maximum power delivered by a solar cell, PMAX, is the area of the largest rectangle under the I/V curve. �)I%k$K�Am%#F��G�� �����,�ڪ֕Y��a�H�%�������{#ݪ��D�o��ź^�L��}_H�ڶ������"����j�Y/g�=�ʥ͉��r���� uM�e>|�ϗ����jb8n|Jt��}�C��j�"J_"�uꥱ�$ In figure 3, PMAX is shown as the area of the shaded rectangle. Repeat taking data for other positions where the panel faces away from the sun. *��D�n�e���U�6�Z�������3�&ê^��..�a]�E�/�պ�׫�$��)��|�,�z�.//�j$7#TB�P�1TnAq"��*P���6��4z��G0�Fw��9b؞�K=�)'�K����G ɣ[��h2����¢���Q+v\����V���'�R�p�F�T���O�]Q'7x{�kE_����H�I3>DqN�؄>���=?7��f�܋/۟8�/�a��.�)3�7C��a�h��z������^�jL .\3�.�m.U~�A��H# Each solar Photovoltaic panel produced has certain specifications related to its power output and current flow. Electrical Characteristics of PV Modules: Equivalent electric circuit. Once you have fixed the position of the panel with relation to the sun it is NOT TO BE MOVED DURING THE EXPERIMENT. Expanding the equation gives the simplified circuit model shown below and the following associated equation, where n is the diode ideality factor (typically between 1 and 2), and RS and RSH represents the series and shunt resistances. Solar cell 2. You will be looking to see if there is a mathematical relationship between cloud thickness and voltage output of the panel. %PDF-1.5 Clearly, reversible cells cannot be realized. Determine if changing the angle of your panel over time to follow the Sun would add up to substantial savings in your energy bill? The following are a few sources for solar panels. Set the frequency of waveform generator 1 to 20 Hz, and the horizontal time base so that at least one full 0 to VOC sweep is displayed. endobj �r��r��(W. Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic panel Characteristics using MATLAB PAWAN KUMAR SRIVASTVA,HEMANT KUMAR SONI,NARESH KUMAR . However, thermal effects at high sunlight concentrations and electrical losses in the series resistance of the solar cell limit the enhancement in efficiency that can be achieved. The objective of this Lab activity is to study and measure the output voltage and current characteristics of a photovoltaic solar panel and develop an equivalent electrical model for use in computer simulation. stream Abstract —A MATLAB programming for the solar PV cell, modules and array is developed and presented in this dissertation. Photovoltaic cells can be arranged in a series configuration to form small modules, and modules can then be connected in parallel-series configurations to form larger arrays. A solar cell is a semiconductor PN junction diode as shown in figure 1. They are 60mm (2-3/8“) square, with nominal 4.5 VOC and 90mA ISC in full sunlight. Set the vertical scale of scope channel 1 to 1V/div. The current-voltage (I-V) curve for a PV cell shows that the current is essentially constant over a range of output voltages for a specified amount of incident light energy. It is also called a photovoltaic cell. Some cookies are required for secure log-ins but others are optional for functional activities. {\displaystyle V_ {GS}-V_ {th}} ; the boundary between linear (ohmic) and saturation (active) modes is indicated by the upward curving parabola. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cell Make sure that you don't cast any shadows or reflections over the panel during the experiment. Our data collection is used to improve our products and services. <> Generally, it consists of two electrodes i.e. Photo-Conductive Cell. When there is no light present to generate any current, the cell behaves like a diode. In this article, we learn about PN junction diode characteristics in detail – like how to bias a PN junction (Forward & Reverse bias methods), behavior of PN junction during forward & reverse bias setups, how to plot the VI characteristics, what is reverse breakdown and many other essential concepts regarding a PN junction diode. The cookies we use can be categorized as follows: ©1995 - 2019 Analog Devices, Inc. All Rights Reserved, Analog Devices Photo cell are of three types. Calculate the maximum output efficiency for each part as follows: Comment on the significance of the size of the efficiency. Mathworks Solar Cell model: As a scope of this article, the basics of IV curve formation and associated terms have been tried to explain. Comment on how power output is affected by the external resistance connected to a photovoltaic panel. You should have adjusted the horizontal time base of the scope to display a little more than one sweep of the voltage ramp. http://www.bgmicro.com/PWR1241.aspx The short circuit current is a function of the PN junction area collecting the light. cathode (K) and anode (A). Solar Cell I-V Characteristics Curve diode in absence (dark) and in presence of light currents … $R\Q"���D�鹝�º�Oۃ]����.' 1 10 Ω resistor (R1) http://www.tigerdirect.com/applications/SearchTools/item-details.asp?EdpNo=4368549&csid=_61. <>>> Load the .csv data file into a data analysis software program like MatLab or a spreadsheet (Excel). 1 470 Ω resistor (R2) Typically, the resistances at ISC and at VOC will be measured and noted, as shown in figure 6. ; Non-ideal diodes include an "n" term in the denominator of the exponent. Overview. This measurement setup will work for solar panels with open circuit voltages less than 5 volts. A solar cell is a semiconductor PN junction diode, normally without an external bias, that provides electrical power to a load when illuminated (Figure 1). Maximum efficiency (%) = (PMAX/PIN) x 100. Scope channel 2 measures the current by measuring the voltage across 10 Ω resistor R1 with input 2+ connected to the source terminal of M1 and input 2- connected to the - terminal of the panel. Decreasing RSH and increasing Rs will decrease the fill factor (FF) and PMAX as shown in figure 5. Solar Cell I-V Characteristic Curves show the current and voltage ( I-V ) characteristics of a particular photovoltaic ( PV ) cell, module or array giving a detailed description of its solar energy conversion ability and efficiency. A typical voltage vs. current characteristic, known as an I/V curve, of a PN diode without illumination is shown in green in figure 2. The working of a solar cell solely depends upon its photovoltaic effect hence a solar cell also known as photovoltaic cell. You should also make your measurements quickly to avoid the heating of the panel from the direct sunlight that may then change the characteristics during the data-collection. solar energy; solar cell A solar energy plant produces megawatts of electricity. Figure 2 Shift of the solar cell I/V curve with increasing incident light. When connecting cells or modules in series to produce higher output voltages, they must have the same current rating ( if not the cell with the lowest current specification will limit the ultimate current of the module ), and similarly, modules must have the same voltage specification when connected in parallel to generate larger currents. Figure 1: Typical I-V Characteristic Curve for a PV Cell Figure 1 shows a typical I-V curve for which the short-circuit output current, ISC is 2 A. Scope channel 1 measures the solar panel voltage with input 1+ connected to the + terminal of the panel and input 1- connected to the - terminal of the panel. This may not always be practical depending on the computer used with the Discovery hardware. 1 or more Solar Panels (see appendix for suggested types) Can you determine the relationship between the voltage output of the solar panel and thickness of experimental “clouds”? The basic characteristics of a solar cell are the short-circuit current (I SC), the open-circuit voltage (V OC), the fill … 1 IRF510 NMOS power transistor (M1) In order to measure these larger currents we must use power transistors as current amplifiers and provide external voltage sources such as batteries that can support the higher current. Return to EPS Lab Activity Table of Contents. Much is made of the amount of energy lost by fixed Photovoltaic systems because they don't always point with the optimal angle of the sun. This part of the lab will simulate how the solar panel is affected by varying amounts of cloud cover using sheets of somewhat transparent or translucent paper to simulate cloud thickness. Their V-I characteristic is a horizontal line.

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